Glenoid Dysplasia refers to an abnormality in the development of the glenoid portion of the scapula (the socket bone of the shoulder joint). This can range from a mild abnormality in development of the bony glenoid to a very severe abnormality. As the process is thought to occur at some point during development, the surrounding soft tissues, especially the glenoid labrum (bumper cushion that deepens the socket), tend to overdevelop (hypertrophy) in order to compensate for the missing bony support.
An article in the American Journal of Roentgenology noted that although historically thought to be a rare entity, moderate to severe glenoid dysplasia had an incidence of almost 15% in their study using high field MRIs. Because of the lack of full bony support in the posterior aspect of the shoulder joint, the soft tissues are placed under increased stress, and these patients are at significantly increased risk of developing shoulder pain, posterior shoulder instability, and premature shoulder arthritis.
Patients with Glenoid Dysplasia that present with shoulder pain in their teens, 20s, and even early 30s in our experience often have extensive labrum tearing that more often than not involve the entire circumference of the glenoid (global or 360 degree tear). Those patients that have had chronic injuries also develop shoulder arthritis, secondary anterior superior rotator cuff tears and traction/torque neuropraxia involving the suprascapular and axillary nerves as well.
Patients with Glenoid Dysplasia that present in their late 30s and beyond typically have developed significant arthritis in addition to all the other pathology already mentioned for the younger group of patients.
Once severe arthritis is the predominant symptom generator and conservative measures for treatment are no longer helpful, we proceed with our detailed evaluation to determine the best type of shoulder replacement for each unique patient.
For patients that still have a reasonable level of available shoulder motion and meet other specific criteria, an entirely arthroscopic all suture biologic reconstruction is our preferred approach. This approach is designed to restore balance to the shoulder and repair all available damaged tissues (labrum, biceps, rotator cuff, etc.) in order to preserve the patient’s native joint, provide pain relief, increase function, and hopefully slow down the progression of the arthritic process. While several other types of surgeries have been described for these patients, we find that in our hands, an entirely arthroscopic approach allows thorough evaluation of the entire shoulder joint as well as comprehensive global treatment that would simply not be possible with a traditional open surgery. This minimally invasive arthroscopic (keyhole surgery) also results in much less damage to surrounding tissues and patients also uniformly prefer minimally invasive surgery. Unfortunately, these techniques are only reliably performed by a handful of shoulder specialists. The causes for shoulder pain can range from the simple to the very complex, so it is important to clearly establish the true cause for your shoulder pain before considering any type of treatment.
A good example of this issue is a recent article warning patients and physicians to be careful not to mistake Glenoid Dysplasia for shoulder trauma: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2904540/
Because we have the privilege of treating patients that travel long distances to seek treatment and have often had multiple failed shoulder surgeries, one of the most common errors we find is the tendency of both patients and physicians to ascribe a simple solution for a complex problem. For instance, we have treated many patients with disabling shoulder pain and instability because of glenoid dyplasia that were treated with a relatively simple shoulder arthroscopy with debridement and acromioplasty (spur removal). When removed from the unique pressures and stress of the individual case, it is easy to see that this treatment can do nothing but worsen the core problem for the patient but we find that most patients are even more eager to grasp for an easy and quick solution rather than take the time to find a true and comprehensive diagnosis before moving ahead with a real solution. This natural tendency for a simple solution when a complex one is needed is so seductive that we often see patients that have had multiple (nine failed operations is the most we have seen) failed operations before considering the possibility that an alternative opinion may be appropriate. This is often referred to as anchoring, the tendency to grasp onto the first available option rather than entertain the fact that the true solution may be more complex. So when faced with persistent shoulder pain that hasn’t responded to several simple treatment options, take the time to do you research and get a second, third, or fourth opinion if needed.